Great prophesies at his birth; either become Great Monarch of India or enlightened one
Father fearful he would choose religious life and kept him within the palace
passed through 550 existences as man and animal before he could fulfil his rol
Deep distress and crisis
Spent 6 years as ascetic monk and found dissatisfaction
Bodh-gaya: fig tree he sat under to attain enlightenment
pattern of meditation
As he meditates God of desire and death tempted him
The answer is “desire is the cause of misery”
From here on Called Buddha
Nirvana and Parinivana
fires of desire extinguished, general inner quiet
end of a cycle of lives of suffering
live in seclusion
An ascetic monk
Source of problem=craving
problem can be extinguished
how to extinguish it (eightfold middle path)
Refuge in Buddha
The Vinaya Pitaka contains the monastic rules which include:
– no killing,
– no unchastity,
– no alcohol
– no lying or stealing
– no eating between meals,
– no secular entertainment,
– no adorning of the body,
– no high or wide beds,
– no accepting money, etc.
They eat what is given to them by lay people, study to achieve enlightenment and meditate (4 stages of meditation).
Rules help member of the order to avoid harming other, practice moderation and purify their minds.
Everything is interconnected and meaning
everything is affected by everything else.
enlightenment unrelated to caste
practical rather than metaphysical concern
Chain of dependent origination
Closest to original Buddhism
Just after Buddha’s death 500 monks chanted it
– Vinaya Pitaka (contains the monastic rules for the Sangha, the Buddhist order)
– Sutta Pitaka (the discourses that contain the teachings of the Buddha, MOST IMPORTANT PART)
– Abhidhamma Pitaka (supplement to the doctrines that contains esoteric teachings.)
3 month retreat
no secular entertainment
no adorning of body
no high or wide beds
no accepting of money
The first five are monks only. The last five are everyone.
– believe in a more deified Buddha and additional buddhas who are gods of wide-ranging power.
– Acceptance of savior beings who provide assurance
– Have achieved parinirvana after human experience
– can’t be reached through prayer
– devotion to them increases merit
– achieve nirvana in heaven
– ‘contemplative Buddhas’ or Tathagatas
– There are at least 5 tathagatas (sun, N, S, E, W.)
– The Buddha of the west is especially significant–he presides over Western Paradise or Pure Land where Nirvana is guaranteed
– he confers merits for salvation to those who have faith in him. Bodhisattvas have taken human form, come to earth, and achieved nirvana yet they have postponed parinirvana out of compassion for humanity.
– Have taken human form
– postponed parinirvana out of compassion for humanity
– can come to earth in human form
– someone destined to be a Buddha
– everyone should vow to be a Bodhisattva
– Most popular Bodhisattva
– divine compassion
he has been preparing himself in heaven to descend to this world and rescue humanity.
he is the bodhisattva that the Buddha prophesied would return to earth as another buddha to redeem an iniquitous world at the last day.
They postpone parinirvana to minister to our needs
everything is empty of identity or of permanence.
Everything is interrelated and in constant flux.
everything is fully self-sufficient or independent.
1. Body of absolute Buddha
2. Body of spiritual bliss
3. Body of earthly form
– Pure land (Amidism): emphasis on faith
– Zen: emphasis on personal effort, zazen
a) wear down the intellect with impossible problems
b) a gradual process of enlightenment (analyzing, categorizing, reasoning, are big obstacles)
– Tendai: rationalist school (meditation plus knowledge)
– Nichiren : Japanese with emphasis on sociopolitical activism and Lotus Sutra
Emphasis on Faith
– Requiring tutoring by a master through ten spiritual degrees depicted on a mandala
– It intermixed easily with Shinto, thus Shinto and Buddhism were practiced together in Japan for over a millennium
Amidism (Pure land)
Tibetan (tantric) (last slide of buddhism)
– Leader of Tibetan Buddhism
– Currently lives in exile
– the incarnation of the Avalokitesvara (see below). He is the – nearest thing to an unofficial “spokesperson” for Buddhism, – but that is more a tribute to his personality and character – — than to any designated authoritative role within Buddhism.
– Religious and political importance: The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or “Yellow Hat” branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай (dalai)meaning “Ocean” and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ bla-ma (with a silent “b”) meaning “teacher”. According to the current Dalai Lama, the Tibetan word “lama” corresponds precisely to the better known Sanskrit word “guru”.
– In religious terms, the Dalai Lama is believed by his devotees to be the rebirth of a long line of tulkus who are considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara. Traditionally, the Dalai Lama is thought of as the latest reincarnation of a series of spiritual leaders who have chosen to be reborn in order to enlighten others. The Dalai Lama is often thought to be the leader of the Gelug School, but this position belongs officially to the Ganden Tripa, which is a temporary position appointed by the Dalai Lama who, in practice, exerts much influence. The line of Dalai Lamas began as a lineage of spiritual teachers; the 5th Dalai Lama assumed political authority over Tibet.
– Political Issues: For certain periods of time between the 17th century and 1959, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. The 14th (and current) Dalai Lama remained the head of state for the Central Tibetan Administration (“Tibetan government in exile”) until his retirement on March 14, 2011. He has indicated that the institution of the Dalai Lama may be abolished in the future, and also that the next Dalai Lama may be found outside Tibet and may be female. The Chinese communist government was very quick to reject this and claimed that only they have the authority to select the next Dalai Lama, despite being an officially atheist nation.
– (in Sikhism) (p.82 and 73). A Hindu tradition focusing on the interior search for God through the practice of Hatha yoga and other disciplines so that the spirit may ascend to mystical bliss. In this tradition, religion was interior. Through following the Sant tradition, focusing on meditation instead of yoga, Nanak was influenced by meditation, an inward search for God, and the mystical ascent to bliss.